Water Quality

Petrography and Geochemistry of the Rocks in Lodwar, Kenya and their Influences on Groundwater Quality

This paper evaluates the influence of rock chemistry on groundwater quality in the region of Lodwar County, Kenya. Rock geochemistry influences groundwater quality and the aquifer processes of an area. Therefore, this study used conventional petrography and geochemistry techniques to measure the mineralogical compositions of 69 rock samples. The geological study area comprised of quartzo-feldspathic gneiss and biotite gneiss of the Precambrian basement, as well as sedimentary Turkana Grits and Holocene sediments, Tertiary volcanics comprising nepheline phonolites and augite basalts, alluvial deposits along the banks of major Streams and laggas. Quaternary sands also blanket much of the area. The results demonstrate that that geological factors and processes have location-specific influence on groundwater quality. These should be considered in aquifer water-quality studies and supply development across Africa’s vast ASAL regions.

Hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of the Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System (LAAS) in Northwestern Kenya and implications for sustainable groundwater use in dryland urban areas

This paper assesses the Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System (LAAS), a crucial resource to northwestern Kenya amid its drylands and unreliable surface water supply. The researchers aimed to study the aquifers hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics to better understand how to manage this groundwater system. Therefore, during the May 2018 wet season, they collected 112 water samples to establish isotopic compositions of rain, spring, surface water and groundwater. Understanding recharge sources and aquifer vulnerability of similar strategic aquifers can help scientists appropriately advise policymakers and the water community who develop sustainable water use, aquifer protection and conservation strategies. As well as providing insight in this regard, the study contributes scientific evidence of isotopic compositions of groundwater in the Horn of Africa.

Reinforcing Feedbacks for Sustainable Implementation of Rural Drinking-Water Treatment Technology

Water safety management is a key factor that rural service delivery models must incorporate if they are to achieve universal access to safe drinking water. Practices such as source protection and water treatment help reduce the risk of fecal contamination. Therefore, this study recognises the importance of water treatment, assessing the implementation of passive chlorination and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection technologies in rural parts of South America, Africa, and Asia. The results identify a series of leverage points which highlight the need for fit-for-purpose intervention design reinforced by collaboration between facilitating actors through hybrid service delivery models.

Multibranch Modelling of Flow and Water Quality in the Dhaka River System, Bangladesh: Impacts of Future Development Plans and Climate Change

The rivers of Dhaka, Bangladesh, suffer high levels of pollution from untreated sewage and industrial effluent. To address this, over the next 20 years, the government is planning to install 12 large Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) across the Dhaka River System. This paper applies a water quality model to assess the efficacy of this planned investment. The model suggests that the STPs will improve water quality in the most densely populated areas of the city along the Turag and Buriganga rivers, and in some other parts of the city (Tongi Khal). However, future upgrades will be needed to improve dissolved oxygen levels more widely, due to predicted population growth. Policies to reduce industrial pollution should also be pursued.

Environmental isotopes (δ 18O–δ 2H, 222Rn) and electrical conductivity in backtracking sources of urban pipe water, monitoring the stability of water quality and estimating pipe water residence time

In this paper, environmental isotopes and electrical conductivity are used to investigate water quality variations in the urban piped water network of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The isotopic signature of the water allows the back-tracking of tap water to its source and also provides insights into pipe water residence time for groundwater-sources supplies. The tracers reveal that 50% of the city relies on groundwater, and that groundwater-sourced water supplies show the highest water quality instability. One important cause of water quality variation in the city is borehole stoppages and reconnection as a result of electricity cuts.

Evaluating the effects of geochemical and anthropogenic factors on the concentration and treatability of heavy metals in Awash River and Lake Beseka, Ethiopia: arsenic and molybdenum issues

This study assesses heavy metal and pollution sources within the Awash River Basin, in Ethiopia. In this region, significant urbanization and industrialization have caused pollutants to enter water bodies on a large scale. After finding high levels of heavy metals across surface water sampling stations, the study advocates for increased efforts towards water security within the Addis Ababa and Awash watershed region.

Evaluating the structures and arrangements of water institutions to include in-stream modeling for water quality management and control pollution: Insights from the Awash Basin, Ethiopia

In sub-Saharan regions, human activities are causing stream water quality to decline. This study assesses stream water quality issues in the Awash Basin of Ethiopia, identifying key sources of land-based pollutants. Applicable models with the capability of simulating the Awash streams are presented, and recommendations towards improved use of water quality modelling for development planning by Awash Basin institutions are made.

Information synthesis to identify water quality issues and select applicable in-stream water quality model for the Awash River basin in Ethiopia: A perspective from developing countries

In-stream water quality models can help prepare effective planning strategies to tackle problems with stream water quality and understand pollutant dynamics in stream systems. In this study, water quality issues in the Awash Basin were reviewed to select an applicable in-stream model to support local model practitioners in creating improvement in water quality management. QUAL2KW and INCA models are found more applicable for the present conditions, while the WASP model may be useful to conduct detailed analysis.

Opportunities to advance water safety through regulation of rural water services

Despite improved access to water supply systems globally, safe drinking water continues to limit progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 6.1. In particular, there is a disparity between access to uncontaminated water in rural and urban areas, with the former significantly lagging behind. In this discussion paper, researchers and practitioners in rural drinking water provision, management and regulation from Bangladesh, Kenya, England and Wales identify key aspects to advance regulation for rural drinking water services.

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